Friday, 17 February 2012
Accidents are unfortunate sudden happenings about which nothing is known in advance. Accidents occurring in the industries are called industrial accidents. These are generally due to faulty equipment and machinery or negligence on the part of the workers. Accident occurs in industries due to faults of the workers. They can be negligent, lack of satisfaction in jobs and under the influence of intoxicants resulting in a higher number of accidents.
Types of industrial accidents:
1. Thermal burns:
It can be because of:
2. Scald (from steam, hot or molten liquid)
3. Contact (from a hot object, such as a hot cooking pan)
Thermal stressors or hazards can ignite fires or explosions, damage equipments or injure workers. Examples of hot surfaces includes:
· Electrical heaters or hot plates
· Operating engines or compressors, especially the exhaust manifolds
· Boiler or furnace surfaces, chimneys
· Steam radiators and equipments
· Burning cigarettes
· Metal heated by friction such as brake drums and bearing
· Surfaces heated by radiation from the sun or from fires
· Metals being welded
· Laser beams
· Metallic sparks
Workers can also be injured by excessive cold surfaces or liquids, such as cryogenic operations, refrigeration pipings, and extremely cold metal surfaces.
The type of burn and the severity of the burn depend on the number of layers of skin affected. Most burns are mild, but some may be severe. Most importantly, 75% of burns are estimated to be preventable.
Physical injury to workers that can result from thermal hazards includes:1st, 2nd, 3rd degree burn to the skin from the contact with hot metals, hot surfaces, hot waters or spark/
- · 1st, 2nd, 3rd degree burn from the exposure to UV or other radiation
- · Destruction of the eye tissue or retina from laser or uv
- · Heat stroke, heat stress
- · Inhalation of byproducts of heated oils or lubricants
- · Frostbite from exposure to extremely cold surfaces
Physiological effects of shock varies from shocks so small that they are not even perceived to severe shocks producing severe tissue damage or even death. The actual mode of death in electrocution is cardiac arrest, or for high energy shocks, severe tissue damage.
Conditions due to electrical accidents
- Asphyxia: occurs when the passage of continuous current through the chest cavity causes the chest muscles to contract, interfering with breathing.
- Asystole: occurs when current higher than 1 A passes through the body
- Pulse and impulse type shock: the duration of shock is much shorter than the heart cycle, it can be provided by capacitor, and lightning discharges
- Electrical burn: a shock from contack with energized equipment can cause external or internal burn. The magnitude of current, the type of contact, and the duration of the contact determine the severity of burn. It causes ventricular fibrillation or continuous muscular contraction.
- Lightning burn: After lightning meets the body current it is initially transmitted internally, after which the skin breaks down and there is an external ‘‘flashover.’’ Other injuries caused by blunt
Chemicals are the most common airborn contaminants encountered in the work place, and include gases, vapours, dusts, fibers, and fumes. In addition to presenting inhalation hazards, some of these materials may be toxic by absorption through the skin or may act as skin irritants.
In many countries hazardous chemical substances are labeled as “substances hazardous to health”, information is also provided in safety data sheets.
Aerosol- is a scientific term which applies to any dispersed system of liquid or solid particle suspended in air. Examples are, dusts, fibers (greater than 5 micro meter), fumes, mists, and smoke.
Once inhaled, the fate of particle depends on size, density, and shape. Heavier particles are deposited in the upper respiratory tracts, smaller particles into the lower, alveolar region. Smaller particles to be exhaled or remained on the lung surfaces.
Fumes are solid particle generated by condensation from the gaseous state generally from the molten materials
Mists are finely divided liquid droplets suspended in the air. Ex- oil mists, pesticides mists, acid mists.
Prevention of chemical hazards:
- Flammable liquid (ether, acetone, ethanol, jet fuel, methanol) should be handled in well ventilated area
- Effective ventilation to prevent accumulation of flammable aerosols and vapours.
- Flammable liquids should be stored in safe containers
- Non-sparking tools and materials (materials made up of wood, leather, and plastic) should be used
- Substitution with a less hazardous chemical
- Maintaining the machine regularly
- Installing effective exhaust ventilation
- Increasing the distance between source and receiver
- Rotation of worker
- Training and education
- Wearing protective equipment
Machine operators may be injured as a result of movement of the machine, being trapped between the machine and materials or being struck by materials ejected from the machine. In identifying machinery hazards, it is useful to consider three factors
- The different phases of machine life (construction, installation, operation, cleaning, maintenance)
- The circumstances giving rise to the injury
- The hazards that can cause the injury
For the different types and ranges of machines used, the hazards can be summarized as follows
- Traps: it can be reciprocating traps (vertical or horizontal movements of machine), shearing traps(moving part traversing a fixed part), moving belt meets a running wheel
- Impact: machinery parts can cause injuries by their speed or movement if a person gets in the way.
- Contact: burns, laceration due to sharp, hot, cold machine component.
- Entanglement: limbs, hair, clothing become entangled with unguarded moving parts
- Ejection: machine may eject particles, metals or actual parts of the machine. Egg- grinding machines
Saturday, 21 January 2012
Thursday, 12 January 2012
It is not my story, it’s my friend’s story who was in trouble and was trying to call Delhi police on 100. It was his bad luck that call was not getting connected and he was getting an error “incorrect number”. He was frustrated and tried to call child helpline, senior citizen helpline; this time call was connected but the other side people told hip to contact police on “100”.
I don’t know why police has given this emergency number; I don’t know till now how many people were success in calling this number.
Actually my friend was using Airtel number, after trying many times he thought to add STD code before 100. He searched STD code of Delhi from his GPRS enabled phone (thank god, his phone was supporting GPRS services) and dialed STD code before “100” and finally police picked up his call and came for the help.
Here I just want to ask,
- Why Delhi police have not mentioned about STD code in case of failure to connect to “100” number?
- Is this happening only with airtel or with other service providers?
Friends, you can comment if you had any good or bad experience with this emergency numberThanks
Sunday, 18 December 2011
Why an educated person don't vote? you know who is responsible for underdevelopment of U.P. state? politicians? no, its public. mayawati herself had not entered in vidhansabha, we have allowed her to loot us. last time about 50% voted, if i m not wrong. i can assure you that if 90% people will vote, then we will get a sincere and educated govt. So please cast your vote and help UP to become a developed state.
Friday, 9 December 2011
Friday, 16 September 2011
Google has updating its services every week for the last five years. Plug-in is the latest Technology which changes the mailing experiences. According to Google 56.7% of Gmail users are only Indians. Same percentage is there for yahoo users also, which is around 56.1%. The latest technology is plug-in which improves the mailing capacity. Here I will discuss about 9 plugins websites which can change your mailing experience completely.
This is an address book builder which collects the names, mobile number, profile photos from your males and makes one cloud best contact list. Xboni has given its services to outlook, blackberry, and Gmail which can access the contact list from anywhere. It will also show the mail records. In its free version you won't get cloud backup and blackberry connect. For the pro version you have to pay 365rs/month.
This is a free plugin, it sends complete detail of the person whom you sending the message on twitter and facebook. You can send the reply of the tweets through Gmail.
It is like a priority box of Gmail. It can track the important emails. It can track your important emails and keeps it in appropriate folders after analyzing.
Toutapp aims to solve the repetitive email problem intelligently. the app is really aimed for the users who send a large number of emails that have similar content.
this is an free Gmail plugin, which works like a schedulling tool. if you are working on any file at night time and you want the same file to be at the top of the mailbox of receiver, then it help you to do the same. It will send you the reminder of any specific day so that you remember that specific day. If you are not getting the reply of any email, boomeranggmail sends the reminder from its side to that particular person.
in Gmail you are getting around 1 gb of space for mailing, most of us never reaches to that limit but few have almost reached to the storage limit. After reaching to the storage limit if you send any mail you will be getting an error message "you have run out of space for your account". To avoid such a condition you will have to buy additional storage space from Gmail and for that you have to spend some money. If you don’t want to use then Findbigmail is the best option for you. It will scan you all emails and find those mails which are taking huge space. After scanning it will label those emails with "big mails". Now you can review those mails and delete them to save the spaces. Around 25-30% space you can get after doing all these procedures.
In mobile devices and laptops, dealing with junk and duplicate mails is really frustrating. scrubly will detect those duplicates and junk address for the review and now you can easily delete them.
Cloudmagic provides search across multiple services, viz gmail, google apps email, Google docs. Cloudmagic also shows results as you type. This is a freeware so you don't have to pay for this service. After installing this software, you get extra search box in your Gmail interface that allows you to rapidly search the email in your inbox.
Followup.cc sets email reminder, if you send email, send cc also so that you can get the reminder. If you are sending BCC, the only you will get the reminder.